Download slides in pdf: Cross-national differences in intergenerational family relations: the influence of public policy arrangements
Abstract: Focusing mostly on Europe, I will talk about how the research on cross-national differences in intergenerational family relations has moved from basic descriptions to a focus on understanding how support exchanges are shaped by macro-level processes. A key issue concerns generational interdependence, the extent to which public policy arrangements impose reliance on older and younger family members or enable individual autonomy. Real theoretical progress is visible in three areas of research. The first pertains to analyses at the micro level of how family members actually respond to the incentives that different macro contexts provide. The generosity or restrictedness of public provisions variably releases or necessitates normative obligations in interdependent family relationships. The second area of progress involves analyses of the implications of specific policies rather than policy packages for gender and socioeconomic inequality. The third area of progress is a more nuanced view on the familialism-individualism divide. These three areas provide inspiring examples for future investigations.
Download slides in pdf: Barriers and facilitators for the use of assistive technologies for activities of daily living
Abstract: Many older people have functional impairments which increase their risk of losing the ability to live autonomously and to become dependent on care by others. However, assistive technologies (ATs) can help to overcome some limitations of activities of daily living and can thus be assumed to prevent, delay or reduce the need for personal long-term care as well as the burden on caring family members (e.g., spouses, adult children). Yet, the use rate of ATs is still rather low. This paper reviews positive effects of ATs and factors that influence their use. We performed systematic literature searches in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Google scholar databases. We found convergent results that the use of ATs for several kinds of activities of daily living such as self-care and mobility was associated with a reduced amount of self-reported personal (in particular informal) care hours. Regarding factors of ATs use, we found that feeling loneliness, cognitive impairments, and difficulty of use were some of barriers for the use of ATs. There is converging evidence that indicators of situation of need (in particular: disabilities in preforming self-care activities) are associated with an increased use of ATs. Slight to moderate functional limitations, chronic illnesses, and home-based training were some of the facilitators for the use of ATs. We concluded with recommendations for further improvement of studies relevant to ATs use.
Download slides in pdf: Development of Family Resilience in Paediatric Palliative Care Settings
Abstract: Illnesses that threaten and / or limit the child’s life have a profound individual and systemic impact, so that emotional, physical, financial, spiritual and social constraints can occur among children and family members (Steele & Davies, 2006). The personal growth associated with the experience of caring for the sick child and the development of the family as a whole have been pointed out as a result of the experience of these situations (Steele & Davies, 2006). Likewise, indicators has been reported to corroborate that a considerable majority of children, even after facing severe or chronic adversity, demonstrates some resilience processes (Masten, 2014). It also seems important to understand whether the resilience of the sick child will be in any way related and / or dependent on the resilience of the remaining subsystems of the family. As familiar and contextual variables, family cohesion, effective family communication, and the maintenance of trusting and positive relationships among family members contribute significantly to a greater capacity to deal with challenging situations (Giallo & Gavidia-Payne, 2006; Rosenberg et al., 2013). Intergenerational family solidarity may contribute to the strengthening of protective factors. So, this study includes measures to evaluate this dimension, specifically the Portuguese version of Monteiro (2010) Intergenerational Solidarity Scale (Bengtson & Roberts, 1991). Thus, with our study, we intend to: identify and analyze the relationship between risk and protection factors and their contribution to the positive adaptation to the experience experienced by the family of children with complex chronic disease; to evaluate the mechanisms and psychological processes implemented by family elements that are precursors of family resilience; to test the impact and efficiency of interventions on indicators of family resilience and their variations according to family characteristics and intervention; and, to answer the gaps found in terms of psychological intervention in paediatric palliative context, expecting to develop an intervention model with an emphasis on family resilience that may contribute to the increase of public policies related to the promotion of welfare. The research plan includes four distinct studies: the first, with an exploratory nature, the second and third with a confirmatory nature, and the fourth with the purpose of evaluating the quality of interventions from the participants’ point of view. The training school in which I participated in Keele was important for the purposeful construction of this project as it allowed me to deepen knowledge in this area, but also to realize how important intergenerational family solidarity can be to guarantee the family’s quality of life.
Download slides in pdf: Silver Universe of Intergenerational Solidarity
Abstract: This is a presentation of a multi-disciplinary volume authored by some members of the INTERFASOL and other scholars and key stakeholders, entitled Silver Universe: Views on Active Living, to be published by the Lexington Books. Why ‘silver universe’? Speaking about aging may seem somewhat negative, but more importantly, it can be insufficient for our purposes, as we are attempting at an exploration of diverse spheres of life. The multidisciplinary approach that we are promoting truly speaks into the universe of meanings, not an isolated human being or problem, but the complex context that surrounds every single one of us. As years go by, at some point our universe becomes silver, just as our hair turns gray. While for years we had heard discussions of active aging, the latest trend is to emphasize that we should promote active and healthy attitude throughout the lifespan. We believe that active living is not only about exercise, but even more so about a healthy diet and prevention. The hope is that every human being flourishes, feeling fulfilled in terms of growth in his or her personal maturity, relationships, professional standing, artistic stimulation, and spiritual capacity. This volume reflects the multi-disciplinary and multicultural diversity of contributions. Intergenerational solidarity constitutes a common thread that nineteen authors from five different countries discuss from the point of view of their respective disciplines. From psychology (both clinical and social), through neurology, neuro-genetics, gerontology, nutrition, through sociology, economics, communication, law, tourism and education to theology, we offer complimentary views as a fruit of INTERFASOL, the COST Action that has allowed us to establish these synergies.
Download slides in pdf: Motivations for Agreement with Parental Values: A Key for Understanding Intergenerational Transmission of Values
Abstract: The bulk of studies on intergenerational transmission of values focused on what values parents want to transmit to their children and on the extent to which parents and children are similar in their value priorities. On the contrary, little is known about why children accept their parents’ values. Do children accept their parents’ values under external or internal pressures (i.e., controlled motivations) or because they consider these values as inherently worthy (i.e., autonomous motivations)? Do these motivations affect intergenerational relationships and value transmission?
This study aims at answering these questions across two generations. We examined adolescents’ motivations for agreement with their parents’ values as well as their parents’ motivations for agreement with their own old parents. Moreover, we analyzed the relations between parents’ motivations to agree with their old parents, the values they would like to transmit to their adolescent children, parent-child relationship quality, and the degree of parent-child value congruence. Participants were 325 families (adolescent and both her/his parents, for a total of 975 subjects) living in the North of Italy. Adolescents (girls: 60%) were high-school students aged from 14 to 18 years (M=15.19, SD=1.17). Mean ages of fathers and mothers were 48.29 (SD=5.56) and 44.98 (SD=4.66), respectively. Participants filled out a self-report questionnaire including the Motivations for Agreement with Parental Values Scale (Knafo & Assor, 2007), the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, 2003), and the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale (Caprara et al., 2001). Data analysis is still in progress and results will be discussed in relation to intergenerational transmission processes.
Download slides in pdf: Why do Value Transmission Between Generations on the Concept of Intergenerational Solidarity Matter for School Education?
Abstract: Intergenerational Value Transmission (IVT) is a reciprocal rather than a linear process, in which all the involved negotiate values to discard or maintain. When the definition of value is taken as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence” (Rokeach, 1973), what beliefs endure and how become critical questions especially in rapidly changing societies where the process is less continuous and diffuse. Turkey has presented a case for rapid social change over last few decades. In this presentation, we focus on value transmission concerning education between the generations since education and schooling have acquired new and conflicting meanings for different generations. With our nationally funded project (TUBITAK, Project 116K245), we aim to explore whether there is a theoretical relationship between the three latent variables: intergenerational solidarity, the degree of metacognitive awareness of the transference of positive values regarding intergenerational solidarity, and the nature (positive or negative) of attitudes towards education. In the study, 900 students from 7 schools in different parts of Istanbul, 75 2nd and 3rd generation family members, and 30 teachers are targeted to collect data from. In this symposium, we present our study design and preliminary findings in relation to the literature from Turkey.
Download slides in pdf: Positive and negative life events and well-being across age groups
The aim of this study was to explore age differences in the frequency of positive and negative events, and its associations with well-being.
Data were collected from the first wave of a longitudinal research project on well-being and life events in Croatia (CRO-WELL project). The sample of adult Internet users was divided in three age groups: younger (N=2115, age 18-30 years), middle-aged (N=2517, age 31-54 years) and older (N=387, age 55-85 years) adults. Participants self-reported Life satisfaction, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and the frequency of 8 positive and 7 negative events occurring during the previous year.
Younger adults reported more positive events than the other two groups, while no differences were found in the frequency of negative events. More positive and less negative events were significant predictors of better life satisfaction for younger and middle-aged, but not for older adults. More positive and less negative events were predictors of higher positive affect among all three age groups. Less positive and more negative events were predictors of higher negative affect for younger and middle-aged, but for older adults only negative events were associated with higher negative affect. These associations remained after controlling for gender, marital status, income, and education level in analyses.
Age effects on covariations between life events and cognitive and affective well-being are explained within socioemotional selectivity theory and older people’s better regulation of their emotional experience.
Download slides in pdf: Inequality and intergenerational support in Europe
Abstract: In times of rapid demographic change and population ageing, rising inequalities in healthy ageing and support for frail older people are of major societal concern and put families as well as states under pressure. This talk will focus on contextual influences on (inequalities in) support from a European perspective in order to find out if and how such developments can be modified by social policies. It will consider the links between informal (family) support and formal (state) support, gender inequalities in support within different care regimes, and the relation between transfers in a three-generational setting and social inequality on the individual and regional level based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe.
Download slides in pdf: Towards a Modelling of the Practices of Intergenerational Family Solidarities in Contexts of Single Parenting the Benefits of a STSM at Cnav in Paris
Abstract: Today, in Belgium, the status of single-parent families is the most important alongside nuclear families. More than 20% of all households with children are single-parent families. At the same time, a reflection of a new sharing of responsibilities and resources in dealing with the needs of individuals is emerging at the political level. Indeed, the worsening of economic difficulties has imposed the idea of a “natural” complementarity between solidarities developed by the public sphere and family solidarities. Thus, given the lack of explanation of the functioning of single-parent families and the development of family solidarity practices, we try to understand this phenomenon through this thesis work. The principal objective of the research is therefore to analyze family solidarity practices implemented within single-parent families. The study focuses on the role of the family network in the functioning of models taking into account the intergenerational dimension. The qualitative approach is based on the grounded theory to produce a theory from the empirical material. Indeed, anchoring consists in referring to what the actors live and reproducing faithfully. We collect data through the use of single parent interview. The sampling does not focus on a population composed of individuals. We start from our questions and sample the phenomenon under study. Through the collection, it is the theoretical conceptualization that is sampled. It is a question of discovering all the characteristics of the phenomenon under study as well as all the articulations attested in order to propose an integrated schematization. This analysis shows that single-parent families develop different ways of working according to several factors: history, context, origin, socio-economic level, and so on. More specifically, the single-parent goes through phases (isolation, adaptation, reconstruction) that evolve in different ways depending on the type of solidarity developed. Thus, the single-parent stays on a continuum from the process of solidarity to a separation and, in a manner that evolves according to the phases through which it passes.
Within the framework of the COST project, I had the opportunity to realize a scientific mission in the Research Unit on Aging (URV) of Cnav in Paris (France) for one week in March 2016. Jim OGG, person in charge of the unit welcomed me. This scientific mission allowed me to discuss the concepts of “solidarity”, “family”, “intergenerational” in order to adopt my own definitions and clarify the theoretical framework of the thesis. In addition, I benefited from the expertise of Mr. Ogg and his team, using a quantitative approach to broaden my questions and scientific reflections.
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